Python GTK+ 3

Tutorial

Scale image automatically to fit parent widget

Reference

allocation = parent_widget.get_allocation()
desired_width = allocation.width
desired_height = allocation.height

pixbuf = gtk.gdk.pixbuf_new_from_file('your_image.png')
pixbuf = pixbuf.scale_simple(desired_width, desired_height, gtk.gdk.INTERP_BILINEAR)
image = gtk.image_new_from_pixbuf(pixbuf)